top of page

Policy Note: Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums?

April 18, 2016


This policy note draws on findings from Emory University’s Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene’s (CGSW) study Public Toilets and their customers in low-income Accra, Ghana and the related study on public health risks due to poor urban sanitation using the SaniPath Tool. The SaniPath Tool measures exposure to fecal contamination (i.e. E. coli) in low-income, urban communities.


Policy Note: Realities of Toilets in Urban Accra

November 2013


The goal of the SaniPath study is to address the scarcity of data available to WASH policy makers and implementers in low income urban communities. This was done by identifying the sources and movement of human fecal contamination and describing the behavior of adults and children that lead to exposure to various fecal exposure pathways. Toilets (private and public) is one of the fecal exposure pathways that the study examined. The study took place in four low income urban communities in Accra from September 2011 to December, 2012.

bottom of page